Comparative Analysis of fundamental motor skills in Finnish children with and without intellectual disability – A replication study

Suominen, G.1, Marttila, J.1, Loovis, E.M.2 & Rintala, P1.

1 Faculty of Sport and Health Sciences, University of Jyväskylä, Finland,
2 Department of Health and Human Performance, Cleveland State University, U.S.A.


Children with intellectual disability (ID) characteristically have motor problems. The purpose of this study was to compare differences in motor skills between Finnish children with and without ID, to compare the differences between children with ID with and without DS, and to systematically replicate Rintala & Loovis (2013). Twenty-five Finnish children (10 girls, 15 boys; M age = 8.7 yr.; SD 1.2) with ID were tested using the TGMD-3. Children with ID (including six children with DS) were matched according to age and gender with typically developing children in order to identify differences in motor skills. The findings revealed significant variability in the motor skills of children with ID as was seen in Rintala and Loovis (2013). The differences in the present study were more significant. Differences between children with ID with and without DS were also noteworthy. With the exception of gallop and catch, all remaining motor skills produced no significant difference in performance between children with DS and children with ID without DS. Overall, the lack of adequate motor skill development in individuals with ID may in the future be a further hindrance to their participation in physical activities and maintenance of active lifestyles for optimal health.


Locomotor skills, Ball skills, TGMD-3, Down syndrome

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