Aspects of reliability and validity of the TGMD-3 in 7-10 year old children with intellectual disability in Belgium


The Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD) developed by Ulrich (1985) is one of the widely known test instruments for assessing fundamental movement skills in children. Changes were made to the new TGMD-3. A total of 19 participants (boys = 14 and girls =5) were recruited for the study from ages 7-10 years old in a special school in Belgium. The results showed an acceptable level of Cronbach’s alpha internal consistency for locomotor subtest α = 0.76, but not for ball skills subtest α = 0.60. Spearman’s rho correlations for both inter and intrarater reliability was found to be 0.85. Aspect of content validity was demonstrated using Krushkal-Wallis and it revealed age differentiation in the locomotor subtest (X2 (df=3) = 9.401, p < 0.05) but not for the ball skills subtest (X2 (df= 3) = 0.661, p > 0.05) and the total scale raw score (X2 (df=3) = 7.12, p=0.07). The Spearman’s rho statistics revealed acceptable value for subtest correlation with total scale raw score for the locomotor subtest (rs=0.85) and ball skill subtest (rs=0.70). In conclusion, the TGMD-3 demonstrated acceptable level of interrater and intrarater reliability and some content validity aspects. However, cautioned is needed in generalizing the results.

Construct validity of The Democritos Movement Screening Tool for preschool children: an examination of the known groups’ criterion


The aim of the present study was to examine the construct validity of the DEMOST-PRE©, using the criterion of the known groups. For that purpose, the performance of 18 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), aged 48-72 months (M=66.6, SD=8.05 months) and 12 with intellectual disabilities (ID) (M=62, SD=9.42 months) on the nine items of the DEMOST-PRE© was compared to that of 18 typically developing peers (TD) (M=64.9, SD=8.74 months). According to the results, TD children demonstrated significantly higher scores than both the ASD and ID groups of children in all test items except the ‘overhead toss to a specific target’ (F2,45= 2,659, p =.081), while the performances of ASD and ID groups were similar. The current findings provide support for the construct validity of the DEMOST-PRE© indicating that it can serve as a valuable tool for preschool aged children.

Construct validity of the battery test “High/Scope Beat Competence Analysis


The aim of this study was to investigate the construct validity of the “High/Scope Beat Competence Analysis Test” (High/Scope Educational Research Foundation, 2005), examining a) the effect of both age and sex on the children’s H/SBCAT scores and b) the internal consistency of the battery test. Four hundred and fifty eight preschool and primary school children from Greece (238 boys, 220 girls), 5-8 years old (M =6.45 years, SD =1.12) participated in this study. For the data analysis both an ANOVA and a MANOVA were applied with the total battery score and the eight item scores being the dependent variables, respectively. Sex (F1,450=27.371, p< .001, η2= .057) and age (F3,450=21.804, p< .001, η2= .127) were found to have a significant effect on children's total battery scores but moderate η2 coefficient. Studying the eight tests individually, girls had better performance than boys with η2< .14, and each age group performed better than the younger groups in all the tests (η2< .14) except "toe-tapping pad with alternating feet" in both tempos (120 and 132 beats/min). The internal consistency of the "H/SBCAT" was supported. The aforementioned results raise concerns about the validity of the "H/SBCAT". A modification of the battery items is suggested, in order "H/SBCAT" validity to be improved.

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