fundamental movement skills

Gender differences in perceived movement competence in childhood


Perceived movement competence (MC) has been identified as one of the potential correlates of physical activity (PA) during childhood. The aim of the present study was to examine perceived MC differences between boys and girls. One hundred and forty-two children (65 boys), aged 6-9 years (Μ=7.6, SD=0.9 years) volunteered to participate. Children’s perceived MC was assessed with the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence-Greek version (Venetsanou, Kossyva, Valentini, Afthentopoulou, & Barnett, under review) that comprises of two sub-scales [object control (OC) and locomotor (LOC)]. To investigate perceived MC differences between genders, multivariate analysis of covariance was utilized, using “age” as a covariate. According to the results, “age” did not differentiate children’s perceived MC. Moreover, boys had higher perceived OC than girls (F1,139=7.3, p= .008, η2= .05), whereas there were no gender differences in children’s perceived LOC (p=.88) or MC (p= .11). It seems that, between 6 and 9 years, gender differences in perceived MC are small and are located only in OC, a finding that can be linked to the kind of activities children participate in. Strengthening perceived MC in both genders, through developmentally appropriate movement experiences, positive feedback and equal expectations may contribute to improving their PA levels.

Aspects of reliability and validity of the TGMD-3 in 7-10 year old children with intellectual disability in Belgium


The Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD) developed by Ulrich (1985) is one of the widely known test instruments for assessing fundamental movement skills in children. Changes were made to the new TGMD-3. A total of 19 participants (boys = 14 and girls =5) were recruited for the study from ages 7-10 years old in a special school in Belgium. The results showed an acceptable level of Cronbach’s alpha internal consistency for locomotor subtest α = 0.76, but not for ball skills subtest α = 0.60. Spearman’s rho correlations for both inter and intrarater reliability was found to be 0.85. Aspect of content validity was demonstrated using Krushkal-Wallis and it revealed age differentiation in the locomotor subtest (X2 (df=3) = 9.401, p < 0.05) but not for the ball skills subtest (X2 (df= 3) = 0.661, p > 0.05) and the total scale raw score (X2 (df=3) = 7.12, p=0.07). The Spearman’s rho statistics revealed acceptable value for subtest correlation with total scale raw score for the locomotor subtest (rs=0.85) and ball skill subtest (rs=0.70). In conclusion, the TGMD-3 demonstrated acceptable level of interrater and intrarater reliability and some content validity aspects. However, cautioned is needed in generalizing the results.

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